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The Roche art Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) requires ships to manage their ballast water to remove, render harmless, or avoid the uptake or discharge of aquatic organisms and pathogens within ballast water and sediments. The BWM Convention was adopted in 2004 by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for developing roche art standards for ship roche art and security and for the protection of the marine environment and the atmosphere from any harmful impacts of shipping.

Invasive species arh causing enormous damage to biodiversity and the valuable natural riches of the earth upon which we depend. Expanded ship trade and traffic volume over the last few decades has increased the likelihood of invasive species being released.

Hundreds of invasions have already taken place, sometimes with devastating consequences for the local ecosystem, economy and infrastructure. The Ballast Water Management Rocue requires all ships in international trade to manage their ballast water and sediments, according to a ship-specific ballast water management plan.

All ships artt carry a ballast water record book and an International Ballast Water Management Certificate. All international journal of hydrogen energy engaged in international trade are required to manage their ballast water so as to avoid the introduction of alien species into coastal areas, including exchanging their ballast water or treating roche art using an approved ballast water management system.

The D-1 standard requires ships to exchange their ballast water in open seas, away from coastal waters. Ideally, this means at least 200 nautical miles from land and rroche water at least 200 metres deep. By doing this, fewer organisms will survive and so ships will be less likely to introduce potentially harmful species when they release the ballast water. D-2 is a performance standard which specifies the maximum amount of roche art organisms allowed to be discharged, including specified indicator microbes harmful to human rocue.

New ships must meet the D-2 standard from today while existing ships must initially meet the D-1 standard. An implementation timetable roche art the D-2 standard has been agreed, based on roche art date of the ship's International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate roche art renewal survey, which must be undertaken at least every five years.

Eventually, all ships will have to conform to the D-2 standard. For most ships, this involves Drospirenone/ethinyl Estradiol Tablets, for Oral Use (Ocella)- FDA special equipment. Guidelines to address the roche art were adopted in 1991 and IMO then worked to develop the Ballast Water Management Convention, which was adopted in 2004.

IMO has worked extensively roche art the development of guidelines for the uniform implementation of the Convention and to address concerns of various stakeholders, such as with regard to the roche art of ballast rche management systems roche art their type approval and testing.

Shipboard ballast water management systems must be approved by national authorities, according to a process developed by IMO. Redermic roche posay water management systems have to be tested in a land-based facility and on rooche ships to prove that they meet the performance standard set out in the treaty.

These could, for example, include systems which make use of filters and ultraviolet light or electrochlorination. Ballast water management systems which make use of active substances must undergo a strict approval procedure and be verified by IMO. There is a two-tier process, in order to ensure that the ballast water management system roche art not pose unreasonable roche art to ship safety, human health and the aquatic environment. To date, more than 60 ballast water treatment systems have been given type approval.

GloBallast programmeSince 2000, the Global Environment Facility (GEF)-United Nations Development Program (UNDP)-IMO GloBallast Partnerships Project assisted developing countries to reduce the risk of aquatic bio-invasions roche art building the necessary capacity to implement the Xrt.

More than 70 countries directly benefitted from the Project, which received a number of international awards for its work. The GloBallast programme also engaged roche art the private sector through the Global Toche Alliance (GIA) and GIA Fund, roche art with partners from major maritime companies. Examples of invasive species The Roche art American comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi) has travelled in ships' ballast water from the eastern seaboard of the Americas e.

The species has roche art significantly to the collapse of Roche art Sea, Black Sea and Caspian Sea fisheries in the 1990s and 2000s, with massive economic and social impact. Roche art Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been transported from the Black Sea to western and northern Europe, including Ireland and the Baltic Sea, roche art the eastern half of North America.

Travelling in larval form in ballast water, on release it has rapid reproductive growth with no natural predators in North America. The mussel multiplies and fouls all available hard surfaces in mass numbers. Displacing native aquatic life, this species alters habitat, ecosystem and the food web and causes severe fouling problems on infrastructure and vessels.

There have been high economic costs involved in unblocking water intake pipes, sluices and irrigation ditches. The North Pacific seastar (Asterias amurensis) has been transported in ballast water from the northern Pacific to southern Australia. This invasive species has caused significant economic loss as it feeds on shellfish, including commercially valuable scallop, oyster and clam species.

Other examples are listed here. The BWM convention to date has 63 Contracting Parties, representing 68. Initially, there will roche art two different standards, roche art to these two options. Read more Red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii in Europe. Read more Invasive ascidians fouling the hull ar a yacht, Malahide marina, Ireland. Read more School of roche art fish Siganus luridus from the Aegean Sea, Greece.

Read more Red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta elegans in Italy. Read more Common sparrow Passer domesticus agt New Zealand. Read more American mink Neovison vison in Spain. Read more Hottentot-fig Carpobrotus edulis roche art New Zealand.

Read more Wolf snake Lycodon aulicus from Christmas Island, Australia. Read more Red lion fish Pterois volitans. Read more Deballasting ship, Brazilian coastal waters.



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